See chapter 7.13 page 302 in WCRF/AICR Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective.
Second most common cancer in women overall
Around half a million new cases in 2002
In general rates are higher in economically developing societies
Rates DECLINING in parts of the world with widespread screening programs
Highest incidence in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, south-east Asia including India and in Latin America
Developing countries account for 80% of cases.
Lower rates in North America, western Europe and a few nations in the Eastern Mediterranean.
Strong inverse socioeconomic gradient in western countries
Survival rates: 50% of cases surviving 5 years.
Non-dietary risk factors for cervix cancer
Sexual transmitted infectious agents – human papilloma viruses (HPVs).
- HPV 16 DNA is found in 60-70% of cervical cancers.
- Important risk factors which results in exposure to HPV: early age at first intercourse, number of sexual partners, number of partners’ sexual partners.
Cigarette smoking increases the risk
- may interact with HPV (allow HPV to persist in cervical epithelium) or
- may cause DNA damage by itself or promote proliferation.
Screening = effective means of detecting early stages.
- Treatment of early stages is associated with very high cure and survival rate. Treatment of precancerous stages will prevent cervical cancer!
- Only 30-40% of untreated dysplasia/CIS will progress to invasive cancer.
Dietary risk factors
NO convincing evidence (not even probable evidence) that dietary factors modify cervical cancer risk
CONVINCING EVIDENCE - decreases risk:
CONVINCING EVIDENCE - increases risk:
PROBABLE EVIDENCE - decreases risk:
PROBABLE EVIDENCE - increases risk:
LIMITED/SUGGESTIVE EVIDENCE - decreases risk:
LIMITED/SUGGESTIVE EVIDENCE - increases risk:
Most effective dietary means of preventing cervical cancer
NO convincing evidence
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